Simplified Great Lakes Sail Rigs
(lesser sails not shown)
A - 3-mast schooner, also called "three-master," "three and after." Technically called a "three-mast topsail schooner" because of the second rank of sails above. All sails are aligned with the long axis of the ship. Schooners could have up to five masts.
B - 2-mast schooner, also called "two-master" and "fore and after," All sails aligned with the long axis of the ship. This and the 3-master above were the standard schooner rigs.
C - Bark or barque. In saltwater terms, a "barkentine." Two forward masts (foremast and mainmast) are square-rigged, with sails aligned across the long axis of the ship (athwartships). Square-rigged masts could have up to four ranks of sails. The third or mizzen mast is schooner-rigged.
D - Grand Haven or "jackass" rig - Basically a 3-master with mainmast removed, but some vessels were built this way. The open center deck allowed lumber cargoes to be stacked high without interference.
E - Brig, also called a "hermaphrodite brig." In saltwater terms, a "brigantine." Mainmast square-rigged, with sails athwartships.
F - Alternative schooner foremast. A trysail, often made of two small topsails, was set on a spar. Also called a "raffee." Note that the mast still has its primary sails fore and aft rigged.
G - Alternative schooner foremast. A square sail set on a spar at the top of the first mast.
H - Ship. Three or more masts, all square-rigged. In practice, only one commercial "ship" is known to have sailed the lakes (JULIA PALMER, 1836-39)
I - "Bald-head" schooner. Standard schooner without topsails (sails removed or built this way).
J - Sloop. Single mast with fore and aft rig, sloops were primarily local carriers.